Discussion on management plan in Song Thanh Nature Reserve, Quangnam province, Vietnam
1. Governance and drawingning method
Song Thanh Essence Coyness is managed by the Guide Consideration delay 31 staffs at give. Tless are one master and two evil masters on the guide consideration. Six staffs are doing professional effect; two staffs suit to the Exploration and Monitoring item; remained ones suit to Refuge item.
The essence coyness guide consideration is lower the plain guide of outlying Jungle Refuge Depatment of Quangnam office. The role of guide consideration is to: i) secure intrinsic instrument, representation and environment; ii) avoid delay universities, exploration institutes to convey out exploration on jungle and biodiversity perpetuation; iii) avoid delay other agencies (e.g. NGOs), to convey out awareness encouragement, similarity bud, ecotourism and staff luxuriance activities; iv) instructor and evaluate intrinsic instrument.
Besides, essence coyness’s staffs are so avoidd delay other agencies, such as confine jungle rankrs, policemen and military in secureing intrinsic instrument. The subsubjoined enforcement wars are rarely afloat to plug illicit mining, logging, hunting in the essence coyness; but these events do not supervene regularly due to the budget constraint.
Tless are indelicate ethnic assemblages inhabiting in the buffer zone of the essence coyness. These race are extremely trusting on jungle instrument for their livelihoods and accept cultural and ethical practices domiciled on the jungle. However, all the intrinsic jungle suits to legislation and co-guide has not been orderly in this area yet.
According to the vulgar guide method in Vietnam, the essence coyness guide drawing should be made by the Guide Bud Team of the coyness’s Guide Consideration that may including master and/or evil master, jungle secureion staffs, enforcement staffs, finance staffs. The guide drawing must be endorsed by Jungle Refuge Office and common by Outlying Race Committee for allocating the budget, staffs, etc. anteriorly implementing.
Based on an impost of the browbeatings to Song Thanh Essence Coyness of-late, six senior browbeatings were attested.
2.1. Hunting and fishing
The seniority of browbeatingened sign in Song Thanh Essence Coyness are enlightened mammals. These sign is plainly targeted for buttress lessening and for commerce as bushmeat, physic, pets or ornamental use. Some sign, in-particular unrefined pig, muntjac, macaques, porcupines, civets and rats are seen as weighty browbeatings to husbandry and so are ambushped to secure crops. Hunting activities accept been executed not merely by national race food exclusive the coyness but so by after a whileoutrs. The vulgar attention of such hunting wholly delay commerce driving hunting outcomes in un-sustaineffectual hunting constrainings.
Fishing is so been considered as aggravate buded and accomplishedment environment delay bad practices such as the use of explosives, taint and electricity.
Although enforcement efforts accept been increasing, illicit logging in Song Thanh Essence Coyness quiescent supervene. Logging can be guideed by after a whileoutrs and national race for commerce or for abode uses. Logs are removed from the jungle either by vast stream or by buffalo. Illicit logging driven by the commerce is aggravate weighty and can transfer to the exindividuality of some sign from Song Thanh Essence Coyness such as the crucially endangered Hopea hiananensis. .
2.3. Over-exploitation of non-timber jungle products (NTFPs)
Harvesting of NTFPs (not including carnals or timber) is guideed by a vast rank of race for crowded reasons, including national communities and after a whileoutrs. The products buded are divers, but embody aquilaria, honey, rattan, ‘uoi’ outcome, vitality copse, laurels fronds and bamboo shoots. The products buded are for commerce and buttress uses. Once exterior forces are compromised in bud, store rates can acception spent sustaineffectual levels and so instrument are depleted. This not merely good-natureds biodiversity, but so removes crucial instrument for national communities, the seniority of which are not collecting for commerce, but for buttress.
2.4. Jungle change
The change of jungle to agricultural fix and Acacia drawingtation is one of main causes of deforeplace and jungle deprivation in the buffer zone and this may create aggravate constraining to the kernel zone. This model has been considered as the consequence of population acception and fix call-for for husbandry and drawingtation of-late. Besides, the upgrading of thoroughfares sharp through the kernel zone of the coyness provides way to jungle areas and could outfollowing in enlightened layer jungle change parallel these thoroughfares. Not merely would this consequence jungle conceal, but so could hypothetically break-in-pieces habitat connectivity, vastly reducing the consequenceiveness of the coyness as a kernel area for vast-ranging sign such as tiger.
2.5. Freshsteep deprivation
Freshsteep are an expressive ecomethod twain in stipulations of biodiversity and national similarity instrument. Steep condition and young steep biodiversity accept been weightyly unsupposeffectual by illicit gold mining and accomplishedmented fishing activities of-late. Gold miners use taintous chemicals such as mercury and cyanide in accelerating mode. The posterity of tainting so needs addressing, twain from the apex of representation of biodiversity forfeiture and civilized sanity.
2.6. Edifice of thoroughfares and hydropower dam
Road edifice is considered as inplain browbeating to habitat in the coyness. The stopentness of jungle caggravate is subjugated delayin the kernel zone in two colonys and delayin two corridors in the buffer zone due to thoroughfare edifice.
Three hydropower dams are proposed for edifice in the buffer zone. The implicit of jungle forfeiture and the affects congenital youngsteep biodiversity would be superveneed. Although the dams conquer not be in the kernel zone, the flooding conquer expand into these areas.This is likely to intercept the alibi and so teaching of divers sign. Reservoirs almost delayout separation are material to discharge of non-native fish sign. These can accept enlightened good-natureds on congenital sign, repeatedly transfering to the national destruction.
3. Guide challenges
3.1. Legislation challenges
The period of Song Thanh essence coyness is not-alike at some places that accept not intentional domiciled on biological and gregarious – economic insist-uponments. The period definitions are not explicitly public by the guide authorities and national residents. The guide drawing has been cheerful but not polite implemented
3.2. Failure of estimate and competent staffs and equipments
According to the common investment drawing for Song Thanh Essence Reserve, the estimate of staff should be 92. However, tless are merely 25 staffs at give in the guide consideration. The defendor harmony is environing 4,000 hectares/guard. This harmony creates it impracticeffectual for a defendor to design his job.
The compatability of the staffs is so not-alike to convey out their tasks consequently most of the staffs graduated in silviculture, having weak conversance or experiment of perpetuation. Additional obstacles to the consequenceive administrationing of the jungle secureion staffs are penniless food and agoing conditions, failure of messages, service and technical equipment.
3.3. Failure of budget
Song Thanh essence coyness guide consideration has not been effectual to convey out divers activities, in distinctly exploration and biodiversity instructoring in the coyness due to the failure of stocking. The stock for the coyness’s operations is harmonious prospering from Quangnam office and basically for the staff’s salaries. Other stock sources via the perpetuation projects stocked by NGOs are not stopent and steadfast.
3.4. Failure of participatory guide mechanism and message delay communities in the buffer zone
Song Thanh guide consideration is merely loving part aggravate kernel zone. National communities accept some inputs into discussions relative-to to its guide but on plain confoundment in resolution.
The village/similarity watch teams, orderly lower perpetuation projects to secure the jungles delayin and encircling the villages, and jungle secureion agreements betwixt communities and the coyness’s guide consideration were periodical as good-natured-natured models in some villages, but those accept not effected polite of-late prospering the projects exalted due to budget constraints.
4. The posteritys should be interjacent in the guide drawing of the essence coyness and recommendations
4.1. Guide objectives
The guide objectives should be explicitly addressed including long-term desire and short-term objectives.
The biodiversity and national cultural traditions in and encircling Song Thanh Essence Reserve, are consequenceively managed and secureed by rankrs in firm delay national communities whilst ensuring sustaineffectual bud of the buffer zone and, as a kernel factor of the Central Annamites Landscape, ecomethod modees are maintained and enhanced.
Budget and instrument are efficiently utilised by skilled, motivated and instructored staff to accomplished realistic targets towards strategic objectives delayin the frameeffect of an adjustive guide drawing
Threats to intrinsic instrument resisting the gross essence coyness are minimised by skilled, motivated and equipped rankrs and communities in firm delay cognate offices through a coordinated watchling and instructoring implementation drawing delayin a law enforcement temporization.
Research and instructoring:
Fointerval guide, secureion and instructoring activities are focused on key areas attested domiciled on guidance sign by a skilled philosophical and instructoring item agoing towards a strategic drawing for area, sign, jungle conceal, guidance habitats and youngsteep perpetuation.
Community combination and economic bud:
Effective jungle secureion and productions guide is guideed in firm delay warranted and communicateed communities and other stakeholders in each commune delayin Song Thanh Essence Reserve, facilitating sustaineffectual economic bud in the buffer zone.
4.2. Guide Activities
Management operations should be assemblageed according to the objectives to which they conquer co-operate-after a while and the target by which they conquer be instructored.
Include guide drawingning, indivisible guide, compatability structure and those should be considered as crucial guidance
Should embody law enforcement temporization, impoverish adornments, gun dispersion, dispersion of illicit gold mining, unfolding communicateant network; and those should be considered as exalted guidance.
Research and instructoring:
Should settle the Exploration and Monitoring item and convey out biological socio-economic explorationes; and those should be considered as exalted guidance.
Community combination and economic bud:
Should embody coyness’s period re-design, similarity co-management, jungle – fix alcolony and perpetuation teaching. In which, similarity co-guide is considered exaltedest guidance.
4.3. Implementation drawings
The binding peculiar, partners, implementing age of each distillation should be explicitly addressed in the implementation drawing. The instructoring drawing is so set up simultaneously delay annual guide reconsideration.
The part of Refuge item is to secure the jungle and its instrument. This can confound divers approaches which in this guide drawing are lumped into two objectives: secureion and similarity combination. Each distillation or assemblage of activities of watch, ambush dispersion war, gun dispersion war, gold mining dispersion, communicateant network, alteration database, etc. should be mentioned in point in the implementation drawing.
Research and instructoring:
The original administration of this item is to plainly instructor the appraises of Song Thanh Essence Reserve, using the outcomes to communicate and adjust guide operations. The original appraises of Song Thanh Essence Coyness are biodiversity and steepshed cognate.
The carnal riches would be measured and the browbeatings to biodiversity would so be instructored aggravate age by Exploration and Monitoring item delay cherished from rankrs whenever they go to the jungle.
The investigation effect focussing on identifying the dispensation of and key colonys for the perpetuation of the guidance appraises would be executed in the Essence Reserve.
Wless key appraises are nationalised such as a population of doucs or a similarity consecrated jungle, the Exploration and Monitoring Item conquer be pregnant delay delineating an Intensive Refuge Zone in table delay national communities. These zones conquer then accept particular guide operations intentional by the Exploration and Monitoring Item in combination delay the coyness guide consideration and national communities to secure the permanence of appraises.
Community combination and economic bud:
The bud of consequenceive co-guide confounds divers steps as outlined in the operations of the guide drawing overhead. It is impracticeffectual to extol one individuality of the mode delayout the others fabrication hindered. Hence the mode is explained less continuous to prepare its accomplished implementation.
Gaining similarity consent on the period of the coyness is crucial for enforcing the laws of the coyness adequately, ensuring exalted appraise jungle is secureed and not disenfranchising national communities from their instrument. Similarity table on the coyness period conquer hence be sought and the period re-intentional and demarcated in the jungle.
Core Zone contemplation and buffer zone fix alcolony are insepareffectual activities. Similarity table on fix alcolony conquer be guideed by ‘District Alcolony Teams’. The Similarity Combination Item in firm delay the Master and Individuality Leaders should secure that commune rankrs are compromised delay this distillation in each commune.
Once all communes accept agreed to the period colony a news conquer be executed by the Similarity Combination Item and reconsiderationed by Individuality Heads and the Director.
Major period posts should be placed on jungle beginning apexs as polite as distinguished features such as ridge tops and vast streams. Smaller period markers should be placed perfect 1km encircling the period of the coyness.
Defining plain boundaries is one pre-requisite of consequenceive similarity-domiciled perpetuation.
Village co-guide agreements determined ‘Huong Uocs’ conquer be familiar in each village. These frame the plea of sustaineffectual jungle guide in the village including sustaineffectual bud and productions secureion mechanisms.
‘Village Refuge Teams’ (similarity watch assemblages) are to be orderly to eneffectual communities to secure their jungle instrument. This permits sustaineffectual bud mechanisms to be orderly and co-operate-withs delay secureion goals as ‘outsiders’ should be exclusive from the kernel zone of Song Thanh. Village Refuge Teams conquer stop of two to five portions per village who are voted for by the similarity. These teams conquer effect simultaneously and delay commune officials to guide watchs. Establishment should prosper the agoing model in Tabhing commune, Nam Giang confine.
Field definition of co-managed zones conquer insist-upon one to two months per commune and confound a lot of arena age. Definition conquer be trialled in Tabhing commune during 2005 delay answer in other communes in posterior years conquer all communes fabrication accomplishedd by the end of 2006.
Village Refuge Teams
Essentially similarity watchs assemblages, Village Refuge Teams are orderly to warrant communities to secure their intrinsic instrument from after a whileoutrs so providing a ‘closed way’ method that can be managed and bud sustainable. As polite as facilitating an acception and sequence of intrinsic chief (so acting as one approach for destitution boon) these teams so co-operate-after a while the essence coyness in intercepting way to the kernel zone by after a whileout violators.
A portion of the Similarity Combination Item conquer be nominated to unfold a perpetuation teaching catalogue for Song Thanh Essence Coyness in firm delay the interval of the item and the commune rankrs.
4.4. Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring has been intrinsically built into all activities. Three senior steps to be smitten to secure all activities are guideed to the exaltedest standards practicable, delayin the allotted age register, by the most divert rankrs and delay unmeasured similarity consent are:
Strategic operation drawingning to accomplished realistic, explicitly defined targets delayin the frameeffect of a guide drawing and operational drawings.
Strong peculiarnel guide to secure all rankrs perceive what, when and how to guide tasks. Monthly, two-way age drawingning and annual reconsiderations conquer secure rankrs remain to effect towards peculiarnel, officeal, place and coyness goals and annual targets.
The fabrication of the philosophical exploration and instructoring office conquer secure an intrusting instructoring method to each target and prepare the conversance insist-upond for and the lowerstanding of, the consequence of instructoring and evaluation methods.
Nguyen Thi Dao 2002. Co-guide of Defended Areas: Finding Solutions for Song Thanh Essence Reserve, Vietnam. Thesis. DICE, University of Kent, UK