Legacy of the Kazakh Khanate in the Political Culture and Traditions
In 1991 year new propound the Republic of Kazakhstan is appeared on the map. The truth and refinement of Kazakhstan is numbered a thousand years. One of the inferable issues is environing autochthonic population’s cause, shape and causes of its homogeneity, bud of refinement and cultural traditions, relationships behind a while other civilizations. Applying for written causes we can demonstrate that Kazakhs khanate had been formed to 1470 when on the domain of Kazakhstan in south-eastern parts Semirechye and in vales of Chu Kazakh sultans Dzhanibek and Girey could pioneership the muddy beggarlyaltys, which had been jointed in beggarlyalty designated “Kazakh”, ‘Kazakhs”.
At the preparation of XVI eldership in the duration of Kasymkhan the Kazakh khanate was strengthened, its borders were widened, syrdarya towns Turkestan, Otyrar, Sayram, Sauran, Syganak, Suzak and Chimkent were part of Kazakh khanate . Kazakhstan becomes public in Asia and Europe. The XVI eldership is an inferable milestone in the truth of Moslem globe from which the new duration computation is began. The celebrated east disciple V. V. Bartold wrote « In the new truth of Moslem in dissimilarity to flying substitute of dynasties and commands? olitical fickleness, propounds mean tome and that’s why failure of any whatsoever patriotism, now we can see the countries establishing there. We see the Moslem command of Huge Mongols in India, then Turkey, Persia ... ” Approximately at that duration Kazakh, Yarkend khanates had been appeared in Central Asia. The Turkic Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Kara-kalpaks were announced on the commemorative exhibition. When the conclusive khan Taukekhan died, the command had substitutive to the number of steppe khans and each of them was at the pioneership of severed groups of Kazakhs and the territories Kazakh khanate existed up to 1716.
At that duration the way of separation and putrefaction had began and the end of this way the propound was nature comprised in Russian sway. The ethnicon of “Kazakh” given the designate of propound is Turkic tidings. It is generally agreed that it instrument “gratuitous man” Kazakhs were very diligent nomads and farmers, own had the huge fat crew, affluent spentures, and prolific gratuitoushold on sub mountain and vales of rivers. But puissant environing Kazakhs and the primitive Kazakh beggarlywealth it is needful to recognize that cause of that beggarlywealth as its refinement and propoundhood dated from centuries. Bibliography: http://www. toptravel. ru/bgkkfl2. htm http://kazakhstan. awd. z Turkic roots of Kazakh gregarious refinement and traditions Kazakhstan has a affluent spent. Its geographical and geogregarious lie has played a estate-containing role in promoting the dominion’s bud. Located in the fortitude of Eurasia, Kazakhstan has crave set itwilful at the crossroads of the globe’s most immemorial civilizations and traffic courses. It has been a plant of gregarious, economic and cultural exsubstitute shapeless East and West, North and South, and shapeless the eminenter players in Eurasia. At opposed stages of its truth, different propounds emerged and open in the plant which became today’s Kazakhstan. All contributed to Kazakh refinement.
In posterior centuries, the steppes were settlement to a commandful propound formed by the Huns. Their sway hugely influenced the geogregarious map of that duration. The Huge Roman Sway in Europe ultimately subvert from the blows of the Attila the Hun’s adventurous warriors. Later, the Huns were replaced on the steppes by Turkic beggarlyaltys. They seted diversified vast propounds public as “kaganats” stretching from the Yellow Sea in the East to the Bfailure Sea in the West. These propounds were celebrated by a refinement modifiable for that duration. They were based not barely on a wandering husbanding but so on an pasture oppidan refinement behind a while affluent traffic and manipulation traditions.
During this duration, cities and caravanserais were seted in the oases of Central Asia, the domain of South Kazakhstan and Central Asia. They incident acrave the celebrated traffic course public as the Huge Silk Road which connecting Europe and China. Other traffic courses were so inferable including the course acrave the Syr Dariya River to the Aral Sea and the South Urals as courteous the so designated “Sable Road” from South Western parts of Siberia through Central Kazakhstan and the Altai part. It was through traffic on the “Sable Road” that the Middle East and Europe were gifted behind a while dear furs.
Major cities and traffic fortitudes seted on these courses comprised Otrar (Farab), Taraz, Kulan, Yassy (Turkestan), Sauran, and Balasagun. The Huge Silk Road not barely stimulated the bud of traffic, it so became a conduit for modifiable philosophical and cultural ideas. For illustration, the huge doctor Al-Farabi (870-950) was hugely influenced by the refinement of the traffic courses. Born in the Farab district, Al-Farabi was dubbed in the East “the Remedy Teacher” behind Aristotle for his proset researches in philosophy, astronomy, harmonious system and mathematics.
The unappropriated scientist of Turkic philology Mahmud Kashgari lived short in the 11th eldership. He created the three-volume “Dictionary of Turkic Dialects” which summed up Turkic folklore and acquirements heritages. In the 11th Century, Yusup Balasaguni of the town of Balasagun, a celebrated rhymer and doctor, wrote “Kutaglu Bilig” (“A Knowledge that Brings Happiness”) which is normal as having played an inferable role in the bud of late gregarious, gregarious and holy conceptions. The Sufi rhymer Hodja Ahmet Yassaui, who lived in the 12th eldership, wrote a gathering of rhymeric thoughts “Divan-i-Khikmet” (“Book of Wisdom”).
He is celebrated throughout the Muslim globe. Part of the cultural leave-by-will of that age is the well-formed oppidan edifice. Examples such as the mausoleums of Arystan Baba, of the huge Sufi Hodja Akhmet Yassaui in Turkestan and Aisha Bibi in Taraz are shapeless the best preserved. Apart from this, the most immemorial nomads of the part deceptive the “yurt”, a dome-shaped greatly dismantled and light lineage made from forest and felt, fictitious for their wandering eset-forth and beliefs. In 1221, Mongolian beggarlyaltys of Genghis Khan conquered Central Asia and assumed their refinement and values to the increasingly involved connection of the part.
By the remedy half of the 15th Eldership a way of alliance had begun shapeless the fellow-creaturess of the Central Asian steppe. This way, superficial from the different ethnic and cultural identities, was drawn unitedly by a beggarly globe opinion and estatestyle. The primitive Kazakh khanates emerged at this duration. By the primitive half of the 16th Century, the shape of a one Kazakh beggarlywealth was completed. The tidings “Kazakh” in the old Turkic diction meant “free” or “independent” which solidtyly fit the kind of the fellow-creatures who had been crave eagerness for their own refractory propound.
In the 17th and 18th Centuries the wandering Jungar beggarlyaltys directed by the Chinese Bogdykhans working a vast lamina war opposite the Kazakh khanate. However, thankfulness to the fortitude of the “batyrs” (knights), the decisiveness of the Kazakh pioneer Ablai Khan, the well-conceived skills of the Kazakh ‘biys’ (sages) Tole Bi, Kazdausty Kazybek Bi, Aiteke Bi, and wilful destruction of the fellow-creatures, the Kazakhs staved solidty hold and natural departure. The Kazakh khans were obdurate to search the soldierly refuge of the Russian Empire, which ultimately led to Kazakhstan’s detriment of sway in 1871. For a duration, the end of Kazakhstan was tied to the
European mould of gregarious bud and the end of the Russian Propound and its fellow-creaturess. Behind the 1917 cast Soviet command was ordinary in Kazakhstan. Kazakhs suffered hugely beneath Soviet manage. Due to the obdurate collectivization in the 1930s, crave caused the departure of 1. 5 pet Kazakhs, which was further than 40 percent of the beggarlywealth. Hundreds of thousands Kazakhs fled to China and elsewhere. The brightest and the best of the beggarlywealth were repressed and repeatedly shot torpid. The regime’s conclusive long was the violent coercion of the Kazakh fellow-creatures on December 17, 1986 as they took to the streets searching right.
Many infer this the preparation of the end for the once masterful Soviet Union. Kazakhstan proclaimed its insurrection on December 16, 1991, and Nursultan Nazarbayev was democratically elected the primitive President of the dominion. Bibliography: Kiessling, Kerstin Lindahl. “Conference on the Aral Sea: Women, Children, Soundness and Environment. ” Ambio Vol. 27, No. 7 (November, 1998): 560-564. Weiner, Douglas. A Little Corner of Freedom: Russian Nature Refuge from Stalin to Gorbachev. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.
Soviet transshape of Kazakh connection and leave-by-will in gregarious refinement and traditions Arguably the most perfect economic plan assiduous by Marxist-fashioned synods and the Soviet Union was that of unwandering and industrial collectivization. Forcing topical Soviets to lay-open propound-controlled farms and industrial reading projects, the Soviet collectivization programs generally had two overarching purposes: the ideological discharge of the Soviet revolution from adjust antagonisms and the concupiscent parasitism of “kulak” banditry, and the economic acquirements of a fiscally wilful-sufficient Marxist connection.
Soviet republics endured two eminenter faces of collectivization that yielded twain profitable and catastrophic goodss. The Stalin synod (1922-53) inaugurated collectivization projects as a instrument to foster “socialism in one dominion,” behind a while an industrialized war machine and a courteous-fed population largely gratuitous of the capitalist admission. As the Comintern and NATO plunged into the Cold War, the Khrushchev synod (1953-64) reimposed unwandering collectivization behind a while the so-designated “Virgin
Lands Program” specifically behind a while the fixed of gratuitousing the USSR from humiliating dependency on Western capitalist living imports. Soviet collectivization made likely economic and industrial achievements that would differently own been impracticable. However, the braying acquirements of collectivization came at a awful cost, undeviatingly creating some of the most horrendous anthropological and environmental disasters of the twentieth eldership.
In twain faces of Soviet collectivization, the fellow-creatures of Kazakhstan endured by far the defeat of these disasters, refusal man-made famines and detriment, incurable environmental desiccation, the uniformtual transshape of the solid Aral Sea to conspicuous descend, concretion soaring and misunderstanding, and astronomical mischance. Uniform worse, the remedy face of collectivization (the Virgin Freehold Campaign) barely exacerbated the hopeless environmental tragedies of the primitive face.
These disasters are solidly superficial from the leave-by-will of collectivization. 1 Despite the Soviets' ideological insistence on the benefits of collectivization programs in Kazakhstan, the Kazakh fellow-creatures accustomed far hugeer refusal and visitation than they profited, and are tranquil struggling to reanimate from the ecological consequences uniform today. It must be unquestioned that the Soviet Union never adapted to undeviatingly lay-on any natural disaster on the Soviet republics or the Kazakh fellow-creatures.
It must so be beforehand emphasized that the Soviet collectivization plan ultimately contributed to indisputable industrial, gregarious, cultural, and business achievements, which transformed tribal Kazakhstan into a late republic and an exporter of everything from steel, to cotton, to Snow Queen® vodka. But the cost that the Kazakh fellow-creatures were obdurate to pay was far too excellent. Twain faces of collectivization own lay-oned an indestructible leave-by-will of unwandering descend, economic discouragement, natural nutrition, and environmental disaster that far overbalance the benefits of the obdurate proletarian discharge brought by the Soviet Union.
Unfortunate for the Kazakhs, the sorrowful leave-by-will of ill-omened Soviet agro-economic plan did not descend behind a while the Berlin Wall, and it may claim centuries to reanimate Stalin's primitive face of Soviet collectivization represents greatly the defeat natural and environmental base of Kazakh truth. The collectivization example began approximately presently behind the last disconnection of the Kazakh beggarlyaltys and polities into the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR) in 1936.
The unwandering germinative of the prolific and primordial Kazakh steppe was perceived as an precious cause of awful collective output for the propound. As in the other, recently “liberated” fellow-creaturess newly incorporated into the USSR, those Kazakhs that were largely bewildered into Soviet connection through obdurate collectivization would ultimately like indicative benefits that would own differently been imlikely for the semi-wandering Kazakhs, such as hypothetically near-universal literacy and business, the bud of oppidanized cities and vehicle systems, soundness attention, job confidence, and nutrition.
Although the eminenterity of these benefits owe themselves to Soviet plan rather than collectivization itself, these acquirements must be weighed behind a while the sorrowful consequences if we are to argue that collectivization had an overall disclaiming goods on Kazakh connection.
Bibliography: CNN. com. “Athrax 'duration bomb' ticking in Aral Sea, researchers say. ” CNN. http://www. cnn. com/WORLD/asiapcf/9906/21/anthrax. island/ Conquest, Robert. The Harvest of Sorrow. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. Krech, Shepard, John Robert McNeill, and Carolyn Merchant. Encyclopedia of Globe Environmental History: A-E. New York: Routeledge Press, 2004.