This essay has been written to perpend the shadow atail the surrealist film Un Chien Andalou. Harper and Stone (2007) bear customary that this ‘…orthodox the cinema as the penny shadow of the reverie set-forth…’ Harper and Stone (2007:8). This essay accomplish be sift-canvassed in individualization following a assistableness the Surrealist qualify-of-place, a dirty aggravateview of scholars closement to duration shall then be consecrated, the film accomplish then be introduced, then the guides intentions shall be sift-canvassed. From hither the shadow of the reverie, set-forth shall then be investigated and then a dirty plan of Freud shall be consecrated.
Once each of these certaintyors bear been sift-canvassed falsifications shall be drawn concerning the set-forthment that the surrealist film Un Chien Andalou ‘… orthodox the cinema as the penny shadow of the reverie set-forth…’ Harper and Stone (2007:8).
This essay has been written to perpend the shadow atail the surrealist film Un Chien Andalou. Past the surrealism qualify-of-place agoing in the 1920s, sundry bear famed the similarities among films that were manufactured during this span and this coterie. At this span, films that were manufactured were tentative. They perpendd agreementships among substantiality and the sundry shadows, which could be pompn, on the defend to sundry mob. They perpendd these genuineities through a sum of media by cogitation what they perceived to be a reverie globe, which could hold the intellect and sensation of body conferences. Thus, substantiality was redefined through these films to force to hold the hearts and likings of this spirittime.
Many of the coming surrealists wrote encircling how the cinema at this span reflected the substantiality of the surrender say. Yet dissimilar sundry other forms of art, film was not pastrely perceived as spirit surrealist at this span as augustly as, poetry, myth, painting, photography, or collage. Subsequently, the learning that has evolved environing the bud of surrealism and film has beseem exceedingly various. Each of these variations is due to the span in which scholars bear sought to investigate these two certaintyors in individualization following a assistableness each other.
The primitive examinations of the agreementships among surrealism and film were principally ascititious from French writers who sought to recognize why these films were so current (Dennison & Lim, 2006; Kyrou, 2005). Then a assist assemblage of scholars agoing to investigate surrealist films, their guides, and a sum of other akin scenarios. These scholars believed that each of these certaintyors had waved each other whilst these films had been made. Finally, past of-late, a sum of scholars bear sought to recognize the agreementships among these films and surrealism (Dennison & Lim, 2006; Kyrou, 2005). They bear sought to educe a sum of theories or concepts that avow these phenomena to be classified into a sum of fields such as, studious or cultural studies (Kyrou, 2005). Each of these forms of academic examination into the agreementships among surrealism and these films has resulted in a sum of differing viewpoints. One of these is that the surrealist film Un Chien Andalou ‘… orthodox the cinema as the penny shadow of the reverie set-forth…’ Harper and Stone (2007:8), nevertheless thither are too others. These scholar’s views shall now be dirtyly pland to force to recognize what these are.
2.Academic Studies and Surrealism
In prescribe to largely recognize how Harper and Stone (2006), grasped their recognizeing of surrealism, it is compulsory to surrender a dirty aggravateview on how academics bear investigated this and the certaintyors extreme it, in agreement to film. Accordingly a dirty aggravateview of this shall now be beneathtaken.
As has already been pland aggravatehead, a sum of scholars bear sought to perpend the agreementships among film and surrealism. Sundry of these agoing to be beneathtaken in the average of the 20th eldership (Graham & Labanyi, 1995; Kyrou, 2005). Sundry film critics, which were associated following a assistableness the French cinema qualify-of-place too sought to recognize these agreementships among the surrealist qualify-of-place and cinema (Graham & Labanyi, 1995; Kyrou, 2005). However, past this span academics bear sought to recognize a sum of elements, which may be ascititious from restricted disciplines. Matthews (1971) and Kovacs (1980) agoing to force to recognize the open interests that the surrealists had in film and they wanted to apprehend what the aspirations of these thinkers were in agreement to the restricted elements of each film. Thus, the anatomy of the surrealist qualify-of-place and film agoing to engage model. Aggravate this, other scholars such as, Short (2008) and Richardson (2006) agoing to sift-canvass the objective surrealist film makers in an force to bridge the gap among what they were unmanageable to accomplish whilst they were making these films, as sundry other scholars had focused on a sum of other restricted elements (Kyrou, 2005). Other closements had focused on analysing the agreementships among surrealism and cinema, such as, Lancanian psycholinguistic anatomy (Williams, 1981) and theories that are past of-late new bear evolved. Both Kuenzli (1996) and Harper and Stone (2006) bear broadened these examinations of the agreementships among surrealism and cinema. Kuenzli (1996) focuses on the French surrealist films that were manufactured in the 1920s and 1930s, inasmuch-as Harper and Stone (2006) bear sought to recognize the cultural genres, which may be associated following a assistableness these surrealistic films. In point, Harper and Stone (2006) guess that:
“….Surrealist cinema surrenders an unsilvered defend assistance no refection to an conference bar the possibility of examining, through unsettling the endureing quo, the accuracy of their own lives; substantiality, that is caught in the moments, the memories, the unlocked-for glimpses aggravate the unamazed. A sometimes black Truth, accordingly, but analogous an repeatedly energetic followingdy of anthropological existence” (Harper and Stone, 2006: 8).
Thus, they bear sought to recognize the cultural aspects that may be akin to surrealism and film. However, though this is a profitable way through which to recognize the agreementship among surrealism and film (Bordwell, Thompson & Ashton, 1997). Thither is augustly past that may be said encircling the agreementship among these two certaintyors, one may weighed the origins, conservations, shadows and a sum of other surrealist closements which may bear waved this qualify-of-place. One may too investigate the certainty that the surrealist qualify-of-place if repeatedly associated following a assistableness the proposal of insurrection. This was consequently what evolved in the ear of the Earliest Globe War era, whither proposals were exceptional, as they appeared to be out-dated in a immanent span of gregarious or gregarious qualify and ravage. This, it may be seen that surrealism healed to harangue these out-dated proposals by forceing to perpendd new media of seem which were apt to the span when they were manufactured. The certainty is that it encompassed so sundry proposals and so sundry unsteady forms of art that it may be investigated by scholars from a sum of perspectives. From this, it may be ascititious that thither is not one way of examining the agreementships among surrealism and film. However, for the intentions of this essay, we shall now force to recognize this in the matter of the surrealist film Un Chien Andalou that Harper and Stone believed ‘… orthodox the cinema as the penny shadow of the reverie set-forth…’ (Harper and Stone, 2007:8).
1. Freud and the surrealist qualify-of-place
Freud was an Austrian neurologist and psychoanalyst he learned beneath Jean-Martin Charcot antecedently commencement his own medical exercitation in Vienna. He is best apprehendn for his theories of the uninformed liking, which bear been alluded to throughout this essay. He believed that he could recognize the uninformed liking through the exercitation of psychoanatomy (Freud, 1913). This consisted of a specialised colloquy that was beneathtaken through exempt company among a savant and his resigned. He became celebrated for a sum of his theories at this span nevertheless; the most apposite to surrealism is his scheme of reveries. He published his Interpretation of Dreams in the coming separate of the twentieth eldership (Freud, 1913). In it, he set-forths that:
“The easy sagacity of the reverieer on early usurps that the reverie – uniform if it does not following from another globe – has at all uniformts delighted ….all the embodied composing the satisfied of a reverie is somehow ascititious from experiment, that it is remanufactured or cherished in the reverie – this at last may be trustworthy as an impregnable certainty. Yet, it would be crime to usurp that such a concatenation among the reverie-satisfied and substantiality accomplish be easily self-evident from a comparison among the two. On the antagonistic, the concatenation must be carelargely sought, and in totally a sum of cases, it may for a desire assistableness frustrate thread. The discuss for this is to be plant in a sum of peculiarities evinced by the donation of retrospect in reveries; which peculiarities, though openly observed, bear hitherto defied exposition. It accomplish be desert our assistableness to investigate these singularitys exhaustively the reverieer into another globe.” (Freud, 1913: Preface)
Twenty to thirty years following, the surrealist qualify-of-place used this as they sought to paint how reveries may be used to paint substantiality (Bordwell, Thompson & Ashton, 1997). This is pompn through the film, which is sift-canvassed in past component underneath.
2.The Film Un Chien Andalou
In his autobiography, the guide, Luis Bunuel, wrote encircling his film Un Chien Andalou he customary that:
“...I’d felt increasingly seduced by that sensibleness for the irsober which was so singularity of surrealism… in the closementing out of the batch total proposal of a sober, aesthetic or other forepurpose following a assistableness technical matters was exceptional as irrelevant….”(Bunuel, 1984: 100).
He too alludes to his own similarity to surrealism:
“The genuine intention of surrealism was not to cause a new studious, pompy, or uniform accurate qualify-of-place, but to bubble the gregarious prescribe, to metamorphose spirit itself.” (Bunuel, 1984: 107).
Both of these set-forthments yield us following a assistableness a profitable recognition into what Bunuel was forceing to close. He saw that the script and the film as a product from his uninformed. He treasured this as a august expedients through which he could pointed and recognize irsober things, which formed the globe environing him. Thus, one similarity that may be annexed to recognize the film Un Chien Andalou may be to force to negotiate the film as a conservation of the guide’s subjective processes either from an uninformed or assured perspective (Williams, 1981). One could annex an similarity that is ascititious from psychoanatomy to force to recognize his motivations and purpose processes. Either way, we must weigh the tender aspects, which are akin to this film, as this is how the guide caused Un Chien Andalou. This could be beneathtaken through examining the visual experiments of an conference as they watched the film or through examining the colloquy and its shadows. Breton commented that:
“the Surrealist atmosphither caused by habitual letter, which I bear wanted to put following a assistablenessin the grasp of totalone, is chiefly causative to the product of the most mild shadows.” (Breton, 1924: online)
For him, the shadows were in the surrealist films that were so impressive. He believed that these caused contiguity among two across elements, which were substantiality, and fantasy, affect the “man cut in two by the window“(Breton, 1924: online). Thus one may say that from this perspective that Harper and Stones set-forthment that surrealist films ‘…orthodox the cinema as the penny shadow of the reverie set-forth…’ (Harper and Stone, 2007:8), was penny. This may be seen as one of the key strengths of this genre, it reveals and perpends a new substantiality, which the conference may experiment earliest agency.
Many bear said that the shadowry in Bunuel’s films was very mild and unforgettable (see as an copy: Breton, 1924: Harper and Stone, 2007). This is what made them so tenderly recognitionful and gave the conference the sensibleness that they beneathstood their conflicts and desires. A succession from this film may be used as an copy to elucidate this. The select succession begins following the alien in a assist and hat enters the cyclist’s capacity, pulls off the cyclist’s bring dress and box and throws them out the window, then prescribes him to endure oppositeness the deference following a assistableness his engagement up as if on a crucifix:
An inter- harangue reads, “Seize ans avant (Sixteen years ago)”, and as the alien turns to liberty, we confront that he is a spitting shadow of the cyclist. He spots some books scribbled upon by ink, walks aggravate, closes the books, and holds them to his chest following a assistableness an air of censure. He profits to the cyclist, calm?} endureing by the deference, and agencys him the books, contradiction his crown as if in nonattainment. Following he turns uninterruptedly frequently to liberty, the cyclist suddenly spins environing following a assistableness a contemplate on his aspect, and the books in his agencys beseem guns. The doppelganger turns to aspect the cyclist following a assistableness a rack seem, but the cyclist mercilessly fires sundry shots. The doppelganger’s eyes flatten tail and he begins his slow-motion collapse, but falls in a meadow by a polite lake, instant to a unadorned mother who sits following a assistableness her tail oppositeness the camera. He graspes out and tries to unite her, but his fingers claw down her inadequate tail, and he falls as the mother vanishes.
This extol pomp sus how we may force to recognize this film from a sum of perspectives, if we annex a psychoanalytical similarity to this we can see that the cyclist may bear been disenchanted following a assistableness hurry effects of the super ego and thus, he lashes out by retaliating by turning the objects frequentlyst him, the books are pungent into weapons which he uses affect guns. The killing of the doppelganger, which is affect a senior to him, seems to be akin to the Oedipal deep interpretations too. This succession is too tenderly masterful and this reflects the ids incentive that avows us to act out, thus a sum of emotions are acted out though the surrealist species of this film. From this when we reconsideration Harper and Stones set-forthment that surrealist films ‘… orthodox the cinema as the penny shadow of the reverie set-forth…’ (Harper and Stone, 2007:8), we may see that this set-forthment may too be exuberant to the psychoanalytical media through which this film perchance investigated.
In falsification, whether the guide’s film was caused by his uninformed liking or his assured substantiality, which he perceived to be penny, we can see how surrealism may bear sought to repeat those shadows, which may be ascititious from a reverie set-forth that is caused in our uninformed liking. Thus, the guide and the film that he has caused bear perpendd and painted a new substantiality that some may recount to through a succession of tender responses.
3.The shadow of a reverie set-forth
From this when we reconsideration Harper and Stones set-forthment that surrealist films ‘… orthodox the cinema as the penny shadow of the reverie set-forth…’ (Harper and Stone, 2007:8), we can see what the surrealists saw reveries as. They believed that this was one way through which they could bring-about similarity to the uninformed and in making these films, they too gave others similarity to the separates of their likings which they may not normally be assured of (Bordwell, Thompson & Ashton, 1997). From his perspective, they used their films as a shadow through which they could pomp conferences the reverie set-forth, as Breton (1924) set-forths:
“It is totally correct that Freud has analysed reveries. It is impervious that this weighable separate of our psychic motive should bear ordinary so mean attention” (Breton, 1924: 21–22).
This, through these films substantiality was painted as a reverie and reveries were painted as substantiality. These set-forths were ascititious from Freud’s scheme of reveries, which was caused at this span, thus this had a expressive wave on the surrealist qualify-of-place.
The shadow was very considerable to the surrealist qualify-of-place and thus we may see how the film Un Chien Andalou may be to seen as a conservation of the guides subjective processes either from an uninformed or assured perspective (Williams, 1981). This is apposite in commendations to the set-forthment that was to be sift-canvassed at the origin of this essay which was surrealist films ‘… orthodox the cinema as the penny shadow of the reverie set-forth…’ (Harper and Stone, 2007:8). Now we may largely recognize how Harper and Stone (2007) grasped their falsifications.
In falsification the set-forthment which was made by Harper and Stone (2007) which set-forths that surrealist films ‘… orthodox the cinema as the penny shadow of the reverie set-forth…’ (Harper and Stone, 2007:8) in agreement to the film Un Chien Andalou, may be seen to be ascititious from a sum of perspectives. These are established on the shadows, which are painted in the film, the guide’s uninformed or assured liking that waved how the film was made, the successions, which occurred throughout the film and the ways through which each of these certaintyors may be beneathstood through psychoanalytical scheme or Freud’s closement the Interpretation of Dreams (Freud, 1913).
Each of these certaintyors pomps how this film was ascititious and sought to pomp body conferences how substantiality may be painted through the shadow of reveries. This is the vulgar similarity which has been associated following a assistableness the surrealist qualify-of-place and each of the forms of art or seem that are used to paint how substantiality may be perceived by reveries and sin versa. From this perspective the anatomy and the sift-canvassion, which has been beneathtaken in this essay, supports the set-forthment, which was made by Harper and Stone (2007).
However, though that falsification may be drawn in agreement to the sift-canvassion that has been beneathtaken through this essay other falsifications may too be drawn. These are akin to the media through which the anatomy of the surrealist qualify-of-place saw and sought to cause shadowical paintions of substantiality through the seem of the reverie set-forth via a sum of media. Thither is augustly past that may be said encircling the agreementship among these two certaintyors, one may weighed the origins, conservations, shadows and a sum of other surrealist closements which may bear waved this qualify-of-place. One may too investigate the certainty that the surrealist qualify-of-place if repeatedly associated following a assistableness the proposal of insurrection. This was consequently what evolved in the ear of the Earliest Globe War era, whither proposals were exceptional, as they appeared to be out-dated in a immanent span of gregarious or gregarious qualify and ravage. Thus, it may be seen that surrealism healed to harangue these out-dated proposals by forceing to perpend new media of seem, which were apt to the span when they were manufactured. The certainty is that it encompassed so sundry proposals and so sundry unsteady forms of art that scholars from a sum of perspectives may investigate it. From this, it may be ascititious that thither is not one way of examining the agreementships among surrealism and film.
Bordwell, D., Thompson, K., & Ashton, J. (1997). Film art: an importation (Vol. 7). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Breton, A. (1924) Manifesto of Surrealism. Available from http://pers-www.wlv.ac.uk/~fa1871/surrext.html (Accessed 29/05/2013)
Bunuel, L. (1984) My Last Sigh. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Dennison, S., & Lim, S. H. (2006). Remapping globe cinema: individuality, humanization and politics in film. Wallflower Pr.
Freud, S. (1913) The Interpretation of Dreams, Third Edition. Trans. by A. A. Brill. New York: The Macmillan Company.
Graham, H., & Labanyi, Y. J. (Eds.). (1995). Spanish cultural studies: an importation: the pains for modernity (p. 18). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Harper, G. and Stone, R. (2007) The Unsilvered Screen: Surrealism on Film. London: Wallflower.
Kovacs, S. (1980) From Enchantment to Rage: The Story of Surrealist Cinema. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.
Kuenzli, R. (1996) Dada and Surrealist Film. Cambridge, MA. MIT Press.
Kyrou, A. (2005) Le surrealisme au cinema. Paris: Editions Ramsay.
Matthews, J. H. (1971) Surrealism and Film. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Short, R. (2008) The Age of Gold: Surrealist Cinema. Los Angeles: Solar.
Richardson, M. (2006) Surrealism and Cinema. Oxford: Berg.
Williams, L. (1981) Figures of Desire: A Scheme and Anatomy of Surrealist Film. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.