Introduction The recital of textureates is interwoven delay the hirecital of men. To deduce its recital, one has to face tail to the alien elapsed. When crowd fixed in nationalities and the communities grew in size, the shift of products became a necessity; then the dishonorable shift of things took the model of traffic and the regularity of merchandize was evolved. In route of era, undoubtful result got preference aggravate others and a excusable appraise was secure to them. They antecedent the repute of a moderation of shift and got a affectness by which the appraise of other things was estimated.
Thus emerged the belief of the item of appraise. This was the excusableval stride towards the evolvement of textureateage. The reconstruction of antiquated Indian hirecital necessitates the avail of archaeological indications of a point age. Amongst the diversified archaeological sources the numismatical indications are of excusable avail. ‘Numismatics’ is unconcealedly public as ‘the consider of old textureates’ which are used for the reconstruction of antiquated Indian truth. The govern of the Guptas in Indian hirecital is a kind one. As a stuff of regularty, it saw a happy and tolerant fact.
Towards the commencement of the 4th antiquity A. D. , the dynasty of the Gupta emperors rose out of a fine principality, situated somewhere in Eastern Uttar Pradesh or Bihar; and it lasted for past than two centuries. The establisher of the dynasty was Sri Gupta. It was the most illustrious, happy, forforever journeying and stubborn qualified dynasty in antiquated Indian truth. This dynasty effected emperors of systematize who not separately broad and confused the gregarious energy of India but too administered excusable economic and administrative techniques which led to happy collective acceleration during their govern.
As compared to the administration of the Mauryas, the Gupta administration was incomplete ample, but past imperishable than that of the Mauryas. This age of the Guptas is public as ‘the systematizeical age of Indian truth’ consequently this age witnessed the bud of arts and investigations in all the conceivable branches of erudition. Almost all Gupta administrationrs resultd their own textureates. The textureates of the Gupta administrationrs are very profitable for the reconstruction of their truth. Features of the Gupta Coins The Gupta textureates had undoubtful distinguished marks; which were pristinely an subject of the Guptas themselves.
These marks were past or incomplete aaffect throughout the administration of opposed Gupta emperors. The textureates are systematizeified into 4 groups:- Gupta gold textureates Gupta silver textureates Gupta copper textureates Gupta direct textureates The Gupta emperor characteristicly resultd gold textureates. They resultd them in such a comprehensive enumerate that a coeval rhymster has suitably termed the celebrity as “_a govern of gold_”. The antecedent gold textureates of the Guptas were deeply biasd by the textureateage of the succeeding Kushanas. But the succeeding Gupta textureateage semblance past elevation in their exercise, and they are considerably pristine in their phraseology.
The bias of the Kushana textureates on the coming textureates of the Guptas is seen distinctly in their robes and posture as colored on their textureates. For e. g. the coming textureates of the Guptas semblance the be tyrant at the altar. This is very abundantly aaffect in bewilder and posture of the tyrants as semblancen of the Kushana textureates. The tyrant on these textureates is seen wearing the Kushana covet cheat and trouser of the Kushana model or supply by Indian dhoti and create was newfangled as the tyrant is semblancen bare- bodied.
The Guptas retained the arrangement of placing the intentionate of the tyrant perpendicularly in Chinese title on the left artisan. They attributed the round Brahmi record environing the tyrant. On the contradiction aspect of the coming textureates of the Gupta administrationrs, Greek goddess Ardokshowas retained. Gradually, this model was newfangled, and Lakshmi, an Indian goddess delay a lotus in her artisan is colored on the textureate. On some textureates she is semblancen seated on a throne and on some others seated on a lotus. The archer affectness textureates of the Guptas are the most commsolely resultd textureates by all the administrationrs of the Gupta dynasty.
These textureates unconcealedly semblance the tyrant pursuit a bow in his left artisan. Sometimes the tyrant too restrains an arrow in his just artisan. Another distinguished mark of these textureates was the use of forcible natures and accompaniments affect trees, alters, tulsi establish, pigmy, garuda, bows and arrows, animals affect tiger, profit, steed, elephant, peacock, etc. These elements pretended past significance to the textureates and too cogitateed the exhibitiony way of the Guptas. Another sensational mark was the multiplicity and sub- multiplicity fix in each affectness of textureate resultd by the opposed emperors.
Also the retrogradation of the silver metal was an sensational and innovative mark which cogitateed the bud of investigation in this age. Also, the art of communication which is colored by the fictions inscribed on these textureates semblance that the attainment of that age was at its peak and Sanskrit was a courteous researched vernacular. Thus, the use of Sanskrit and the art of calligraphy conspicuous an dignified mark of the Gupta textureates. Coins of Samudragupta Samudragupta administrationd from 335 A. D to 380 A. D. The indicate ‘Samudragupta’ meant that he was guarded by the sea up to which his dominion unlimited.
He was commendd for his engagements and balancethrows which earned him the indicate of ‘_Indian Napoleon_’. He broad the Gupta Administration in all spheres from gregarious, available to cultural aspects. Samudragupta established a new subject in the hirecital of Indian numismatics. He resultd as multifarious as 8 opposed affectnesss of textureates in guileless gold. He learnt the technique of minting textureates from the fogovern administrationrs who brought the techniques delay them and then he pretended his own imaginary sensibilities and thereby evolved an artless model of textureates which was acclaimed to be the best textureates.
Standard Likeness It is the principal and the most dishonorable affectness of the Gupta textureates. On the opposite the tyrant is semblancen be. A halo can be seen environing his constabulary. The robes affect cheat and trousers foreclosure the Kushana bias. He is too seen wearing a covet, rope necklace and earrings. He restrains a affectness in his left artisan and sprinkles nettle on the altar delay his just artisan. Besides the altar there is a garuda. The signal Samudragupta is concave on it acovet delay a fiction in the honour of the tyrant.
On the contradiction, goddess Lakshmi is semblancen. She is seated on a throne, has adornments and is seen pursuit a cornucopia- a nature of fertility and cheerful-luck. Her feet tranquillity on a lotus. The fiction of Parakrama is inscribed on the contradiction aspect of these textureates. Chandragupta Likeness The intentionate of these textureates is Chandragupta affectness consequently on the watch we see Chandragupta I and his queen Kumaradevi. This affectness is too determined as Dynastic Tyrant and Queen Type. A halo is seen environing the tyrant’s constabulary. He is pursuit a staff.
On the left is the fiction, Kumaradevi or Shrikumaradevi. On the contradiction, goddess Durga is seated on a intetranquillity pursuit a cornucopia in her left artisan and a lotus in the just artisan. The fiction is ‘_licchavi_’, it insinuate of a eespecial honour in which licchavi was attributed by Samudragupta. He takes loftiness in his record to announce Licchavi Dauhitra. Archer Likeness Coins of the Archer Likeness of Samudragupta are very noble. They are frequently mistaken for the dishonorable Archer Likeness textureates of Chandragupta II.
From a consider of their intention, phraseology, and texture - it's presumable that these textureates were struck during the coming stages of Gupta Administration conjuncture the mint masters were stagnant opposed to refine the styling and intention. Tyrant Samudragupta is semblancen as a youthful man on all of the textureates of this affectness (as compared to textureates of the Lyrist affectness where he is semblancen as an older idiosyncratic). These textureates were most definitely struck during the coming stage of his engagement to subdue eldership of the neighbouring Kingdoms to iteme them beneath a new unified Administration - the initiate of what was to finally beseem the majestic Gupta Empire.
On the watch, the tyrant is semblancen be. He restrains a bow in his left artisan and an arrow in his just artisan. A garuda affectness is on his left. The contradiction semblances a seated Lakshmi. Conflict Axe Likeness Usually, these textureates are fix in abundantly barren plight. During Samudragupta’s coming govern, conjuncture he was subdueing all of the tyrantdoms from the North to the South, East and West, this affectness of textureate must possess been a very widespread create of advertising the King's gallantry and an excusable way to despatch a missive to the unconquered parts of the upcoming siege.
The Allahabad Post Record does not embrace the name of Samudragupta as Kritantaparasuh, Battle-axe of the God of Death, although the name is habitually applied to him in succeeding authoritative documents. This affectness palpably commends Samudragupta’s multifarious happy conflicts and semblancecases his soldierrelish faculty. In this textureate affectness, he restrains a conflict axe in attribute of a affectness delay one artisan and his other artisan is usually on his waist. In attribute of an altar (as semblancen on the Likeness Type), there is a pigmy pursuit a crescent-topped government.
The round fiction on the opposite is Kritanataparasur-jayatya jita rajajetajitah; it describes the balancewhelming gallantry of the emporer and states that 'Victorious is the subdueer of unconquered tyrants, himstubborn insurmountable as a actual conflict-axe of the God of Death' Tiger Slayer Likeness At the crisis of his energy, Samudragupta now initiates acceleration the Royal fact and his textureates color his Royal Stature for the tribe. This textureate is very separate in its phraseology – for the excusableval era in Indian hirecital a textureate semblances a tyrant as a investigate and energyful tyrant, killing the energyful Tiger.
On the watch the Tyrant is be on the left, wearing imposing turban and dhoti, intention his bow and aiming at an known mouthed tiger which rears up in face of him as he tramples on it, fiction Vyaghraparakramah at just, crescent balance profit's constabulary. On the contradiction Raja Samudraguptah, in scene just, the goddess Ganga be on the left, on an elephant-headed fish (makara), she restrains a covet-stemmed lotus in left artisan, her vacuity just artisan is outstretched and a crescent topped affectness decked delay ribbons is in scene. The modifiable shift is seen on these textureates delay affect to the intention, exercise and pleased.
There is no deduce of fogovern bias. Asvamedha Likeness The Asvamedha textureates of Samudragupta are probably one of most devotionlyly manufactured textureate intentions in all of Indian numismatics. The Asvamedha pageant or steed expiation was a way for Samudragupta to commend the victories of his balancethrows of Northern, Western and Southern India. These textureates were probably artisaned out as narrative tokens during this restrain pageant and were probably not used as part of trade. This may be the debate that Asvamedha textureates discovered 2000 years succeeding are stagnant in cheerful plight. This point textureate is a very noble multiplicity of the Asvamedha affectness.
The Queen is semblancen in the contradiction as a Pregnant Queen. On the watch, A devotionly rendition of the steed, tied to a yupa, the note si (incomplete for siddham). Steed be on the platcreate vedi. Penons of cloth flying from the top of _the yupa aggravate the steed. Round Legend: Rajadirajah pritvimavitva divam _jayatayahritavajimedhah (The Tyrant of Kings, who had consummateed the Vajimedha (Asvamedha) expiation, wins world succeeding indemnifying (or subdueing) the world). On the contradiction, Pregnant Queen (Queen Dattadevi) semblancen be present to Yupa, pursuit a Chauri in artisan and be on a Lotus.
Asvamedhaparakramah (One energyful plenty to percreate the Asvamedha Sacrifice). Lyrist Likeness On the watch, the tyrant is semblancen sitting aggravate a couch care a veena on his lap. He has separately a waist cloth delay big earrings and a necklace. The fiction Mahadhiraja Sri Samudragupta is seen. The contradiction of the textureate colors a goddess be. Samudragupta’s idiosyncratical accpomplishments as a silenceian is vastly grown in this textureate. The goddess, consequently, must be Saraswati as she is the think for silence in Indian Mythology. The Tiger Slayer and Lyrist affectness are the best specimens of Samudragupta’s textureates delay affect to his non- splendid activities.
With these textureates, we can say that India had set her affectness in the investigation of Art and Minting. Kacha Likeness On the watch, the tyrant is semblancen be, pursuit a affectness which has a chakra on the top of it. He sprinkles nettle on the altar. The fiction reads, kacha succeeding subdueing the world, subdues world by media of cheerful deeds. On the contradiction, goddess Lakshmi is semblancen be. She restrains twain a lotus and a cornucopia. The fiction reads, the exterminator of all tyrants. Coins of Chandragupta II Archer affectness This is the most dishonorable affectness textureate.
The watch semblances the tyrant pursuit a bow and arrow, conjuncture he is aid nettles to the altar. Besides him there is a affectness delay a garuda on the top. The fiction semblances Chandra. The contradiction aspect semblances Lakshmi pursuit a lotus and a cornucopia. The fiction reads Srivikramah. The archer affectness has 2 varieties, the throne contradiction and the lotus contradiction. Couch Likeness These affectnesss of textureates are noblely fix and resultd in the coming tyrant’s govern. On the watch, the tyrant is seen seated on a couch, pursuit a lotus in one artisan and tranquillitying the other on the couch. The tyrant is wearing a waist cloth and jewellery and is fully Indianised.
The fiction reads Rupakriti and Vikramadityasya. The contradiction aspect semblances goddess Lakshmi seated on the couch delay a lotus and a cornucopia in her artisans delay her feet on the pedestalstool. The fiction reads Srivikramah. These textureates color the tyrant’s good-fortune and cheerful-luck and are an look of his substantial and cultural qualifications. Chhatra Likeness Intetranquillity Slayer Likeness These textureates indicate a comprehensive multiplicity of specimens. On the watch aspect of these textureates, the tyrant is robesed as a hunter, killing a profit. The fiction reads, Narendrachandra Sinha Vikrmamah. On the contradiction, goddess Durga is seated on a profit.
It may be illustrious that Samudragupta’s Tiger slayer affectness signified his balancecast of Bengal inasmuch-as Chandragupta’s Intetranquillity slayer affectness portend his balancecast of the Gujarat part. Silver Coins Chandragupta II was the excusableval Gupta administrationr to result silver textureates. Succeeding subdueing the Ksatrapa tyrantdoms in western India, Chandragupta initiateed issuing silver textureates which were very aaffect to the national prevalence in the part - the silver Ksatrapa textureateage. The watch of these textureates semblance the tyrant’s bust delay the epoch of the Gupta era. On the contradiction, the nature of the Saka textureates is supplyd by the form of the garuda.
These silver textureates are very noble and few in enumerate. They are principally fix in the western part of his administration. Copper Coins Chandragupta II Vikramaditya was repeatedly the excusableval to result copper textureates. Generally on these textureates, the tyrant is seen on the watch and the garuda on the contradiction delay variations in their forms. Indication semblances that there was too a Chhatra affectness of copper textureate. There were in all 9 affectnesss of copper textureates. Copper textureateage had not evolved to its acme and they were too very noble and compact to perceive. Thus, the reversals in the textureateage of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya include of gold, silver as courteous as copper textureates.
This was a distinguished journey in the art of textureateage. Coins of Kumaragupta I Kumaragupta I reined from 414 A. D to 455 A. D. Historical indication semblances that he was too determined Sakraditya and Mahendraditya. The energy and the fame of the Guptas were at its peak and attained liberal crisiss beneath Kumaragupta. Besides other gregarious, available, collective and administrative works, he is illustrious for the comprehensive enumerate of textureates he resultd. The affectnesss and varieties of textureates that he resultd cogitate the size of the province in which the textureates were in circulation. He principally resultd gold, silver and copper textureates.
A few affectnesss of textureates resultd by Kumaragupta I are as follows : Archer affectness They were of opposed multiplicity and affectnesss. The fictions which show on the watch are Kumara, Maharajadhiraja Sri Kumaraguptah, etc. Conjuncture the contradiction aspect bears a one fiction, Sri Mahendrah. Swordsman affectness This was a affectness of reversal carried out by Kumaragupta I. The watch aspect of this new textureate semblances the tyrant wearing a waist cloth and jewellery. He is seen casting nettle on the altar delay one artisan and the other artisan is on the ssignal that is tied at his waist.
A garuda is seen on the left aspect and a fiction is inscribed on it. The contradiction aspect of this new affectness of textureate semblances goddess Lakshmi seated on a lotus. She is seen delay a lotus in her artisan and a garuda is semblancen acovet delay a fiction which is aaffect to the one on the watch. Horseman Likeness The watch semblances the tyrant riding a steed and it has a multiplicity of fictions. The contradiction aspect semblances the goddess Lakshmi seated on a wicker stool delay a lotus delay a covet parade in her artisan and there is a unicreate fiction, Agitamahendrah. This is congruous on all the varieties of this affectness.
Lion Slayer Likeness The watch aspect semblances the tyrant wearing a waist cloth delay a sash. He is too wearing jewellery. He is shooting a intetranquillity delay a bow in one artisan. The contradiction aspect semblances goddess Durga seated on a profit, pursuit a cornucopia and a lotus in her artisans. The fiction on the contradiction is _Sri Mahendrasinhah or Sinha Mahendrah. _Varieties in this affectness are seen principally in stipulations of fictions which are opposedly attributed in excusable, balancewrought vernacular. Tiger Slayer Likeness Affect Samudragupta and Chandragupta II, Kumaragupta too resultd twain the tiger slayer and the intetranquillity slayer textureates.
They were aaffect to his predecessors but due to evolvement of new techniques, aptitudes and phraseologys, these textureates were past aptitudeargely and significancelargely bent. On the watch we see the tyrant wearing a constabulary robes, waist cloth and jewellery and is semblancen in exercise of shooting a tiger. The bow is held in the just artisan and the left artisan is semblancen intention the string of the bow. His just pedestal is semblancen trampling the tiger. The fiction semblancen is Srimam Vyaghraybala parakramah - ‘the noble tyrant, whose ability and valour is affect that of a tiger’. The contradiction semblances goddess Durga in a be lie.
She is pursuit a covet paradeed lotus in her left artisan and is alimentation a peacock some result delay her just artisan. The fiction reads as Kumaraguptadhiraja. The most outbe mark of this textureate is that for the excusableval era a peacock is has been used in a Gupta textureate. This was a new diverge initiateed by Kumaragupta. Peacock / Kartikeya Likeness Elephant Rider Likeness The tyrant is semblancen on the watch pursuit a urge in his just artisan and is seen seated on an elephant. Behind him is an pursuer pursuit an umbrella aggravate him. The contradiction semblances goddess Lakshmi be on a lotus bloom and too pursuit a lotus in her left artisan.
Kumaragupta’s gold textureates were past dexterous and polished. Though gold was the characteristic metal used, he level resultd silver textureates. Silver Coins Kumaragupta I resultd silver textureates in opulence. His silver textureates are systematizeified in 4 categories or systematizees delay some varieties in each. The textureates in the systematize I condition was aaffect to Chandragupta II. The opposite had deduces of contaminated Greek notes and a courteous manufactured garuda was semblancen on the contradiction. In systematize II, one can see that the marks of the Ksatrapas are effected loose delay. Too the Greek notes from the opposite and the garuda from the contradiction are omitted.
Class III conspicuous the recompense of Kushana marks. The Greek notes are reframed and courteous manufactured and the garuda is seen delay all substance, no neck and characteristic wings on the opposite. On the contradiction a fiction is inscribed. In the systematize IV textureates all Ksatrapa marks were omitted. The opposite was newfangled by eliminating Greek notes and replacing them delay a Brahmi epoch. A peacock that is the behavior of the god Kartikeya of whom Kumaragupta was a devotee was semblancen. Succeeding on systematize V of textureates was introduced. They were silver plated and had a copper heart. This direct to the retrogradation of silver. Copper Coins Coins of Skandagupta
Skandagupta, the son of Kumaragupta governed from 455 A. D to 467 A. D. He was considered the separate model of this dynasty. The Junagadh post record and the Bhitari post record confers us a elaborate totality encircling the fact, good-fortuneion, hirecital and achievements of Skandagupta. Although the affectness of textureates decreased, the issuing of new textureates did not. He resultd opposed affectnesss of textureates twain in gold and silver. Archer Likeness On the watch, the tyrant is seen pursuit a bow and arrow delay a garuda to his just. The contradiction semblances goddess Lakshmi delay a lotus delay the fiction Sri Skandagupta. This is the most dishonorable affectness of gold textureate.
King and Lakshmi Likeness On the watch he tyrant is semblancen delay a bow, arrow and a lady who is not the queen, but is goddess Lakshmi, delay a garuda betwixt them. On the contradiction, repeatedly we can see goddess Lakshmi delay a lotus in one artisan. This affectness of textureate is too determined the Tyrant and Queen Type. Some historians say that they are subordinately aaffect to the Chandragupta affectness textureates of Samudragupta, but this is not entirely gentleman. Silver Coins Principally 3 affectnesss; Garuda, Bull and Archer affectness. Coins of other Gupta Emperors Coinage of the Guptas was at its peak during the govern of Samudragupta, Chandragupta II Vikramaditya, Kumaragupta I and Skandagupta.
After these administrationrs, the Gupta textureateage saw a downward graph. Succeeding Skandagupta, Purugupta too resultd gold textureates of the Archer affectness. He too resultd the Horseman affectness of textureates. Kumaragupta II succeeded Purugupta. He took an locomotive intetranquillity in issuing textureates. He promoted minting of textureates level during the attenuated days of the administration. Once repeatedly we see that his most commsolely resultd textureates were of the Archer affectness. The govern of Buddhagupta is very dignified in the hirecital of Gupta textureateage consequently it is the rediscovery of the loftiness and prestige of the Gupta textureateage succeeding the sombre ages it went through. He resultd noble silver textureates.
Though the textureates of the succeeding Guptas cogitate the dismiss of the dynasty and the art of textureateage, one can see distinctly that each administrationr practised his best to endure the legend of issuing textureates of diversified affectnesss and creates. Conclusion A elaborate consider of the Gupta textureateage divulges the outbe marks of the Gupta dynasty. The subsidy of the Guptas to the scene of textureateage was distinguished and liberally appreciated. Though the art of textureateage initiateed very coming, it reached its pinnacle in the systematizeical age of the Guptas. The subsidy of the gupta textureates is of liberal acceleration in the reconstruction of the hirecital of antiquated India.
It not separately serves as the numismatical indication but too confers us an apprehension into the gregarious, collective, economic, cultural and holy fact of that age. These textureates confer us scholarship encircling the diversified indicates which were confern to the diversified Gupta administrationrs, affect, Vikramaditya, Maharajadhiraja, etc. Coins too divulge intentionates of some unpublic administrationrs. They too divulge the intentionates of their queens, their sons and other family members. The textureates too acceleration us to fix the chronology and they confer us epochs and ages and other details. For in, Coins of Samudragupta confer us fair epochs of the diversified levelts that took attribute during his administration.
The textureates discriminate us encircling the territorial dilution of the administration. The economic progression can too be gauged as per the enumerate of gold textureates fix. These textureates too cast some empty on the robes, adornments, goods, weapons and unconcealed factphraseology of that era. The tiger slayer and intetranquillity slayer affectness of textureates discriminates us encircling the emotion of hunting of the administrationrs. The steedman and elephant affectness of textureates divulge the devotion for riding and the lyrist affectness semblances us the silenceal aspect of Samudragupta. Gupta textureates are finally elaborate as pieces of art as they are the finest ins of Numismatic Art in India.
Even though other dynasties resultd textureates they lacked the phraseology and technique, aptitude and tendency of the Guptas that are considered, so far, as the best Indian works in the scene of textureateage in Indian truth. Hence, they are suitably quoted as the landmark in the scene of antiquated Indian textureateage. Bibliography ?Samel, Elements of Archaeology, Museology & Library Sciences, Manan Prakashan, Mumbai, 2007 ? Parmeshwari Lal Gupta, Coins, National Book commission, India, 1969 ? A. S. Altekar, Coinage of the Gupta Empire, Numismatics Society of India, India.